To our knowledge, no previous study has prospectively evaluated the associations of calcium intake with incident adenoma, metachronous adenoma, and incident cancer in the same cohort using the same food frequency questionnaire, which minimises misclassification that can occur when combining dietary estimates from multiple studies with different food frequency questionnaire instruments. One weakness is that the PLCO is a sigmoidoscopy-based randomised trial, which only screened the distal colorectal region. Thus, incident adenoma cases mainly included adenomas from the left side of the bowel although metachronous adenoma and incident CRC cases included cases from both proximal and distal regions. However, it is interesting that reports found that colonoscopy was linked to reduced deaths from the distal colorectal region, but not the right. 41,42 Similarly another report from the PLCO observed sigmoidoscopic screenings only reduced distal, but not proximal CRC mortality. 25 Further, sigmoidoscopic screenings also significantly reduced both distal and proximal CRC incidence in the PLCO. 25 Thus, the PLCO provides a unique opportunity to test whether calcium intake confers additional protection against proximal and distal CRC among those receiving sigmoidoscopic screening(s). Similar to other nutritional epidemiological studies using food frequency questionnaires, there are possibly non-differential measurement errors which usually bias the results to the null. In addition, despite the relatively large sample sizes in our study, our investigations between calcium intake and colorectal carcinogenesis were constrained when evaluating by Ca:Mg ratio strata. The number of cases for some sub-categories of calcium intake in the <1.7 Ca:Mg ratio stratum were few and in some instances zero, making inferences relating to trends difficult in this stratum. Furthermore, to maintain relatively balanced number of cases in calcium categories in the largest Ca:Mg ratio stratum, we choose 2.5, the median in the data set, as one of the Ca:Mg ratio cut-offs, instead of 2.6 as investigated in previous studies. Finally, considering investigation of three main outcomes, several sub-group analyses and tests for effect modification, it is possible that findings reported in this study may be due to chance. We found different calcium intake distribution between intervention arm and control arm shown in Supplementary Table 1. The reason is not clear, and it may be due to different food frequency questionnaires were in two arms. However, we found the association pattern between calcium intake and CRC risk is similar in the intervention arm and control arm.
The outcome from your investigation are located in contract with a few in the past typed degree, however in dispute with others. One another cohort degree and you may earlier intervention trials receive highest calcium supplements intake otherwise supplementation try regarding modestly faster risks of adenoma, metachronous adenoma and you can CRC. 7,8,9,10,eleven,a dozen,15,thirty-two But not, the results regarding a giant-size randomised clinical test (WHI) do not help an effect of calcium plus nutritional D supplements on chance of CRC immediately after 7 many years of realize-up. 16 It’s possible that follow-up period inside WHI may not have been long enough to possess a defensive perception becoming evident. In reality, the research of the Nurses’ Fitness Investigation and Medical researchers Pursue-up Studies just shown a keen inverse organization between calcium supplements consumption and you will CRC in addition to datingranking.net/cs/only-lads-recenze revealed that the fresh new connections turned progressively healthier which have increasing attacks out-of latency, and you can is actually most powerful towards twelve–sixteen many years pursue-upwards several months. 33 That have the typical go after-upwards several months much more similar to this research compared to the WHI, we also report comparable section rates because Zhang ainsi que al., with a stronger inverse relationship getting distal CRC yet not to own proximal CRC. 33 A good pooled-data of 10 cohort degree together with reported the brand new inverse connection anywhere between milk products and you may CRC try simply for malignant tumors of distal, perhaps not the fresh proximal rectum. fifteen For this reason racking up proof consistently ways calcium intake was regarding the shorter chance of distal CRC.
Metachronous colorectal adenoma (recurrent adenoma)
It is distinguished that when we examined the brand new mutual associations off Ca consumption with Milligrams intake categorised from the RDA peak for a few different varieties of colorectal neoplasia chance (experience adenoma, experience CRC otherwise event distal CRC), we receive equivalent trend as with our very own primary analyses the spot where the inverse connectivity for California consumption with regards to this type of effects were all more powerful to have Mg consumption within or over the RDA compared in order to Milligrams consumption less than the newest RDA (Additional Dining tables cuatro–6). not, none of your own testing for communications was in fact mathematically significant on the other hand to your screening to own communication i noticed towards Ca:Mg rates. This is exactly consistent with early in the day findings during the Eastern Western populations into the which the relationships was statistically tall between Ca:Milligrams ratios which have calcium intake, but not between magnesium consumption that have calcium intake. 19 Put another way, the newest correspondence having California:Milligrams rates can’t be informed me because of the magnesium consumption by yourself.